The storm door deadbolt and latch side rail are likely misaligned, which can prevent the deadbolt from retracting.
To unjam the deadbolt, remove the latch side rail installation screws. This will loosen the tension on the deadbolt allowing it to retract and the door to open. Once the door is open, operate the handle and turn the deadbolt. If either does not operate when the door is open, the hardware needs to be replaced.
If the handle set and deadbolt move freely when the door is open, the deadbolt may be hitting the edge of the strike plate. Adjust the strike plate to allow the deadbolt to move freely. To determine in which direction and how much to move it, apply some lipstick to the edge of the deadbolt. When the door is closed, engage the deadbolt all the way. Open the door, and if there is a lipstick mark on the latch rail or strike plate, adjust as needed. Wipe the plate clean, and repeat the test until the deadbolt engages freely and doesn’t leave a mark.
If there is not lipstick on the strike plate, but there is a mark on the back surface of the deadbolt hole, the deadbolt hole in the door frame needs to be deepened with a chisel.